CONTENTS.
CHAPTER I.
 
MAMMALIA.
 
Neglect of zoology in Ceylon
3
Labours of Dr. Davy
3
Followed by Dr. Templeton and others
4
Dr. Kelaart and Mr. E. L. Layard Monkeys
5
The Rilawa, Macacus pileatus
5
Wanderoos
5
Knox's account of them
5
Error regarding the Silenus Veter (note)
6
Presbytes Cephalopterus
7
Fond of eating flowers
7
A white monkey
8
Method of the flight of monkeys
9
P. Ursinus in the Hills
9
P. Thersites in the Wanny
10
P. Priamus, Jaffna and Trincomalie
10
No dead monkey ever found
11
Loris
12
Bats
13
Flying Fox, Pteropus Edwardsii
14
Their numbers at Peradenia
16
Singularity of their attitudes
17
Food and mode of eating
18
Horse-shoe bat. Rhinolophus
19
Faculty of smell in bat
19
A tiny bat, Scotophilus foromandelicus
20
Extraordinary parasite of the bat, the Nycteribia
20
Carnicora. - Bears
22
Their ferocity
23
Singhalese belief in the efficacy of charms (note)
24
Leopards
25
Erroneously confounded with the Indian cheetah
25
Curious belief
26
Anecdotes of leopards
27
Their attraction by the small-pox
28
Native superstition
28
Encounter with a leopard
29
Monkeys killed by leopards
31
Alleged peculiarity of the claws
32
Palm-cat
32
Civet
32
Dogs
33
Cruel mode of destroying dogs
33
Their republican instincts
34
Jackal
34
Cunning, anectodes of
35
The horn of the jackal
36
Mungoos
37
Its fights with serpents
38
Theory of its antidote
40
Squirrels
41
Flying squirrel
41
Tree-rat
42
Story of a rat and a snake
43
Coffee-rat
43
Bandicoot
44
Porcupine
45
Pengolin
46
Its habits and gentleness
47
Its skeleton
48
Ruminantia. - The Gaur
49
Oxen
50
Humped cattle
51
Encounter of a cow and a leopard
51
Draft oxen
52
Their treatment
53
A Tavalam
53
Attempt to introduce the camel (note)
53
Buffaloes
54
Sporting buffaloes
55
Peculiar structure of the foot
56
Deer
57
Meminna
57
Elk
59
Wild-boar
59
Elephants
60
Recent discovery of a newspecies
60
Geological speculations as to the island of Ceylon
61
Ancient tradition
61
Opinion of Professor Ansted
61
Peculiarities in Ceylon mamalia
63
The same in Ceylon birds and insects
63
Temminck's discovery of a new species of elephant in Sumatra
64
Points of distinction between it and the elephant of India
65
Professor Schlegel's description
66
Cetacea
68
Whales
68
The Dugong
69
Origin of the fable of the mermaid
70
Credulity of the Portuguese
70
Belief of the Dutch
70
Testimony of Valentyn
71
List of Ceylon mammalia
73
CHAP. II.
 
THE ELEPHANT.
 
Its Structure.
 
Vast numbers in Ceylon
75
Derivation of the word "elephant" (note)
76
Antiquity of the trade in elephants
77
Numbers now diminishing
77
Mischief done by them to crops
77
Ivory scarce in Ceylon
78
Conjectures as to the absence of tusks
79
Elephant a harmless animal
81
Alleged antipathies to other animals
82
Figths with each other
86
The foot its chief weapon
87
Use of the tusks in a wild state doubtful
88
Anecdote of sagacity in an elephant at Kandy
89
Difference between African and Indian species
90
Native ideas of perfection in an elephant
91
Blotches on the skin
92
White elephants not unknown in Ceylon
93
CHAP. III.
 
THE ELEPHANT.
 
Its Habits.
 
Water, but not heat, essential to elephants
94
Sight limited
95
Smell acute
96
Caution
96
Hearing, good
96
Cries of the elephant
97
Trumpeting
97
Booming noise
98
Height, exaggerated
99
Facility of stealthy motion
100
Ancient delusion as to the joints of the leg
100
Its exposure by Sir Thos. Browne
100
Its perpetuation by poets and others
102
Position of the elephant in sleep
105
An elephant killed on its feet
107
Mode of lying down
107
Its gait a shuffle
108
Power of climbing mountains
109
Facilitated by the joint of the knee
110
Mode of descending declivities
111
A "herd" is a family
112
Attachment to their young
113
Suckled indifferently by the females
113
A "rogue" elephant
114
Their cunning and vice
115
Injuries done by them
115
The leader of a herd a tusker
117
Bathing and nocturnal gambols, description of a scene by Major Skinner
118
Method of swimming
121
Internal anatomy imperfectly known
122
Faculty of storing water
124
Peculiarity of the stomach
125
The food of the elephant
129
Sagacity in search of it
130
Unexplained dread of fences
131
Its spirit of inquisitivenss
132
Anecdotes illustrative of its curiosity
132
Estimate of sagacity
133
Singular conduct of a herd during thunder
134
An elephant feigning death
135
Appendix. - Narratives of natives, as to encounters with rogue elephants
136
CHAP. IV.
 
THE ELEPHANT.
 
Elephant Shooting.
 
Vast numbers shot in Ceylon
142
Revolting details of elephant killing in Africa (note)
142
Fatal spots at which to aim
143
Structure of the bones of the head
144
Wounds which are certain to kill
145
Attitudes when surprised
148
Peculiar movements when reposing
148
Habits when attacked
150
Sagacity of native trackers
150
Courage and agility of the elephants in escape
151
Worthlessness of the carcass
153
Singular recovery from a wound (note)
154
CHAP. V.
 
THE ELEPHANT.
 
An Elephant Corral.
 
Early method of catching elephants
156
Capture in pit-falls (note)
156
By means of decoys
157
Panickeas - their courage and address
158
Their sagacity in following the elephant
159
Mode of capture by the noose
160
Mode of tang
161
Method of leading the elephants to the coast
162
Process of embarking them at Manaar
162
Method of capturing a whol berd
163
The "keddah" in Bengal described
164
Process of enclosing a berd
165
Process of capture in Ceylon
165
An elephant corral and its construction
166
An elephant hunt in Ceylon, 1847
167
The town and district of Kornegalie
167
The rock of Aetagalla
168
Forced labour of the corral in former times
170
Now given voluntarily
171
Form of the enclosure
172
Method of secuting a wild herd
173
Scene when driving them into the corral
174
A failure
176
An elephant drove by night
177
Singular scene in the corral
178
Excitement of the tame elephants (note)
178
CHAP. VI.
 
THE ELEPHANT.
 
The Captives.
 
A night scene
180
Morning in the corral
181
Preparations for securing the captives
181
The "cooroowe," or noosers
181
The tame decoys
182
First captive tied up
183
Singular conduct of the wild elephants
184
Furious attempts of the herd to escape
186
Courageous conduct of the natives
187
Variety of disposition exhibited by the herd
189
Extraordinary contortions of the captives
190
Water withdrawn from the stomach
191
Instinct of the decoys
191
Conduct of the noosers
194
The young ones and their actions
194
Noosing a "rogue," and his death
196
Instinct of flies in search of carrion
(note) 196
Strange scene
197
A second herd captured
199
Their treatment of a solitary elephant
200
A magnificent female elephant
201
Her extraordinary attitudes
201
Wonderful contortions
203
Taking the captives out of the corral
204
Their subsequent treatment and training
205
Grandeur of the scene
205
Story of young pet elephant
206
CHAP. VII.
 
THE ELEPHANT.
 
Conduct in Captivity.
 
Alleged superiority of the Indian to the African elephant - not true
207
Ditto of Ceylon elephant to Indian
209
Process of training in Ceylon
211
Allowed to bathe
213
Difference of disposition
214
Sudden death of "broken heart"
216
First employment treading clay
217
Drawing a waggon
217
Dragging timber
218
Sagacity in labour
218
Mode of raising stones
218
Strength in throwing down trees exaggerated
219
Piling timber
219
Not uniform in habits of work
220
Lazy if not watched
220
Obedience to keeper from affection, not fear
221
Change of keeper - story of child
222
Ear for sounds and music
223
Hurra!
(note) 224
Endurance of pain
224
Docility
225
Working elephants, delicate
225
Deaths in government stud
226
Diseases
227
Subject to tooth-ache
227
Question of the value of labour of an elephant
229
Food in captivity, and cost
230
Breed in captivity
231
Age
232
Theory of M. Fleurens
232
No dead elephants found
234
Sindbad's story
236
Passage from Ælian
237
CHAP. VIII.
 
BIRDS.
 
Their numbers
241
Songsters
 
Hornbills, the "bird with two heads"
242
Pea fowl
244
Sea birds, their number
245
I. Accipitres. - Eagles
245
Falcons and hawks
246
Owls - the devil bird
247
II. Passeres. - Swallows
248
Kingfishers - sunbirds
249
The cotton-thief
250
Bul-bul - tailor bird - and weaver
251
The mountain jay
253
Crows, anecdotes of
253
III. Scansores. - Parroquets
256
IV. Columbidoe. - Pigeons
257
V. Gallinoe. - Jungle-fowl
259
VI. Gralloe. - Ibis, stork, & c.
260
VII. Anseres. - Flamingoes
261
Pelicans
262
Strange scene
262. 263
Game - Partridges, & c.
265
List of Ceylon birds
265
List of birds peculiar to Ceylon
269
CHAP. IX.
 
REPTILES.
 
Lizards. - Iguana
271
Kabara-goya, barbarous custom in preparing the kabara-tel poison
272
Blood-suckers
275
The green calotes
276
The lyre-headed lizard
277
Chameleon
278
Ceratophora
279
Geckoes, - their power of reproducing limbs
281
Crocodiles
282
Their sensitiveness to tickling
285
Anecdotes of crocodiles
286
Their power of burying themselves in the mud
286
Tortoises. - Curious parasite
289
Terrapins
290
Edible turtle
291
Cruel mode of cutting it up alive
291
Huge Indian tortoises
(note) 293
Hawk's-bill turtle, barbarous mode of stripping it of the tortoise-shell
293
Serpents. - Venomous species rare
294
Tic polonga and carawala
296
Cobra de capello
297
Tame snakes
(note) 298
Anecdotes of the cobra de capello
298, 305
Legends concerning it
299
Instance of land snakes found at sea
300
Singular tradition regarding the cobra de capello
 
Uropeltidæ. - New species discovered in Ceylon
302
Buddhist veneration for the cobra de capello
303
The Python
303
Tree snakes
305
Water snakes
306
Sea snakes
306
Snake stones
312
Analysis of one
315
Cæcilia
317
Frogs
317
Tree frogs
320
List of Ceylon reptiles
321
CHAP. X.
 
FISHES.
 
Ichthyology of Ceylon, little known
323
Fish for table, seir fish
324
Sardines, poisonous?
324
Sharks
325
Saw-fish
325
Fish of brilliant colours
326
The ray
326
The sword-fish
328
Curious fish described by Ælian
330
Salarias alticus
332
Beautifully coloured fishes
332
Fresh-water fish, little known, - not much eaten
335
Fresh-water fish in Colombo Lake
336
Perches
336
Eels
337
Immense profusion of fish in the rivers and lakes
339
Their re-appearance after rain
340
Mode of fishing in the ponds
340
Showers of fish
341
Conjecture that the ova are preserved, not tenable
342
Fish moving on dry land
344
Ancient authorities, Greek and Roman
345
Aristotle and Theophrastus
346
Athenæus and Polybius
346
Livy, Pompomus, Mela, and Juvenal
346
Seneca and Pliny
346
Georgius Agricola, Gesner, & c.
347
Instances in Gurana
(note) 347
Perca Scandens, ascends trees
348
Doubts as to the story of Daldorf
350
Fishes burying themselves during the dry season
351
The protopterus of the Gambia
352
Instances in the fish of the Nile
 
Instances in the fish of South America
353
Living fish dug out of the ground in the dry tanks in Ceylon
354
Molluses that bury themselves
355
The animals that so bury themselves in India
357
Analogous case of
358
Theory of æstivation and hybernation
358
Fish in hot water in Ceylon
358
List of Ceylon fishes
359
Instances of fishes falling from the clouds
362
Note on Ceylon fishes by Professor Huxley
364
Comparative note by Dr. Gray, Brit. Mus
366
Note on the Bora-chung
367
CHAP. XI.
 
MOLLUSCA, RADIATA, AND
 
ACALEPHÆ.
 
I. Conchology. - General character of Ceylon shells
369
Confusion regarding them in scientific works and collections
369
Ancient export of shells from Ceylon
370
Special forms confined to particular localities
372
The pearl fishery of Aripo
373
Frequent suspensions of
374
Experiment to create beds of the pearl oyster
375
Process of diving for pearls
377
Danger from sharks
379
The transparent pearl oyster (Placuna placenta)
380
The "musical fish" at Ballicaloa
381
A similar phenomenon at other places
(note) 383
Faculty of uttering sounds in fishes
384
Instance in the Tritonia arborescens
385
Difficulty in forming a list of Ceylon shells
386
List of Ceylon shells
388
II. Radiata. - Star fish
395
Sea slugs
396
Parasitic worms
396
Planaria
398
III. Acalephoe, abundant
398
The Portuguese man-of-war
400
Red infusoria
400
Note on the Tritonia arborescens
401
CHAP. XII.
 
INSECTS.
 
Profusion of insects in Ceylon
403
Imperfect knowledge of
404
I. Coleoptera. - Beetles
405
Scavenger beetles
405
Coco-nut beetles
407
Tortoise beetles
408
II. Orthoptera. - Mantis and leaf-insects
408
Stick-insects
410
III. Neuroptera. - Dragon flies
411
Ant-lion
411
White ants
411
Anecdotes of their instinct and ravages
412
IV. Hymenoptera. - Mason wasps
416
Wasps
417
Bees
418
Carpenter Bee
418
Ants
420
Burrowing ants
424
V. Lepidoptera. - Butterflies
424
The spectre
426
Lycænidæ
426
Moths
427
Silk worms
428
Stinging caterpillars
429
Wood-carrying moths
430
Pterophorus
432
VI. Homoptera
432
Cicada
432
VII. Hemiptera
433
Bugs
433
VIII. Aphaniptera
433
IX. Diptera. - Mosquitoes
434
Mosquitoes the "plague of flies"
(note) 434
The coffee bug
436
General character of Ceylon insects
442
List of insects in Ceylon
442
CHAP. XIII.
 
ARACHNIDÆ, MYRIOPODA,
 
CRUSTACEA, ETC
 
Spiders
464
Strange nets of the wood spiders
464
The mygale
465
Birds killed by it
467
Olios Taprobanius
469
The galeodes
470
Gregarious spiders
471
Ticks
471
Mites. - Trombidium tinctorum
472
Myriapods. - Centipedes
472
Cermatia
473
Scolopendra crassa
474
S. pollipes
474
The fish insect
474
Millipeds. - Julus
476
Crustacea
477
Calling crabs
477
Sand crabs
478
Painted crabs
478
Paddling crabs
478
Annelidre, Leeches. - The land leech
479
Medicinal leech
483
Cattle leech
484
List of Articulata, &c
485
Note. - On the revivification of the Rotifera and Paste-eels
486
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.
 
View of an Elephant Corral
Frontispiece
Group of Ceylon Monkeys to face
5
The Loris (Loris gracilis)
12
Group of Flying Foxes (Pteropus Edwardsii) to face
14
Head of the Horse-shoe Bat (Rhynolophus)
19
Nycteribia
21
Indian Bear (Prochylus labiatus)
23
Ceylon Leopard and Indian Cheetah
26
Jackal's Skull and "Horn"
36
Mongoos of Neura-ellia (Herpestes vitticollis)
38
Flying Squirrel (Pteromys oral)
41
Coffee Rat (Golunda Elliotti)
44
Bandicoot Rat (Mus bandicota)
45
Pengolin (Manis pentadactylus)
47
Skeleton of the Pengolin
48
Moose-deer (Moschus meminna)
58
The Dugong (Halicore dugung)
69
The Mermaid, from Valentyn
72
Brain of the Elephant
95
Bones of the Fore-leg
108
Elephant descending a Hill
111
Elephant's Well
122
Elephant's Stomach, showing the Water-cells
125
Elephant's Trachea
126
Water-cells in the Stomach of the Camel
128
Section of the Elephant's Skull
145
Fence and Ground-plan of a Corral
172
Mode of tying an Elephant
184
His Struggles for Freedom
185
Impotent Fury
188
Obstinate Resistance
189
Attitude for Defence
203
Singular Contortions of an Elephant
204
Figures of the African and Indian Elephants on Greek and Roman Coins
208
Medal of Numidia
212
Modern "Hendoo"
212
The Horn-bill (Buceros pica)
243
The "Devil-bird" (Syrnium Indranee)
247
The "Cotton-thief" (Tchitrea paradisi)
250
Layard Mountain Jay (Cissa puella)
252
The "Double-spur" (Gallo-perdix bicalcaratus)
260
The Flamingo (Phoenicopterus roseus)
261
The Kabara-goya Lizard (Hydrosaurus salvator)
273
The Green Calotes (Calotes ophiomachus)
276
Tongue of the Chameleon
278
Ceatophora to face
280
Skulls of the Crocodile and Alligator
283
Terrapin (Emys trijuga)
290
Shield-tailed Serpent (Uropeltis grandis)
302
Tree Snake (Passerita fusca) to face
307
Sea Snake (Hydrophis subloevis) to face
311
Saw of the Saw-fish (Pristis antiquorum) to face
326
Ray (Aëtobates narinari)
327
Sword-fish (Histiophorus immaculatus)
330
Cheionectes
331
Pterois volitans
334
Scarus harid
335
Perch (Therapon quadrilineatus)
337
Eel (Mastacembelus armatus)
338
Mode of Fishing, after Rain
340
Plan of a Fish Decoy
342
The Anabas of the dry Tanks
354
The Violet Ianthina and its Shell
370
Bullia vittata
370
Pearl Oysters, in various Stages of Growth to face
380
Pearl Oyster, full grown to face
381
Cerithium palustre
381
The Portuguese Man-of-war (Physalus urticulus)
399
Longicorn Beetle (Batocera rubus)
406
Leaf Insects, &c.
409
Eggs of the Leaf Insect (Phyllium siccifolium)
410
The Carpenter Bee (Xylocapa tenniscapa)
419
Wood-carrying Moths
431
The "Knife-grinder" (Cicada)
432
Flata (Elidiptera Emersoniana and Poeciloptera Tennentii)
433
The "Coffee-bug" (Lecanium caffeoe) to face
436
Spider (Mygale fasciata) to face
465
Cermatia
473
The Calling Crab (Gelasimus)
477
Eyes and Teeth of the Leech
480
Land Leeches preparing to attack
481
Medicinal Leech of Ceylon
483