CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION
xix
CHAPTER I
 
PHYSIOGRAPHY OF EASTERN LIBYA
1
CHAPTER II
 
ETHNOLOGY AND ETHNOGEOGRAPHY
39
CHAPTER III
 
LANGUAGE AND WRITING
73
CHAPTER IV
 
ECONOMICS
91
CHAPTER V
 
SOCIETY AND GOVERNMENT
108
CHAPTER VI
 
DRESS AND ORNAMENTATION
118
CHAPTER VII
 
MATERIAL CULTURE AND ART
142
CHAPTER VIII
 
RELIGION
172
CHAPTER IX
 
HISTORY
210
APPENDIX I
 
ON THE "C GROUP" PEOPLE OF NUBIA
245
APPENDIX II
 
ON TWO INSCRIPTIONS FROM GHEYTAH
253
APPENDIX III
 
TRADITIONAL LIBYAN ORIGINS
255
APPENDIX IV
 
BIBLICAL NOTICES
258
APPENDIX V
 
THE ANTAEUS-CRATER OR EUPHRONIUS
260
BIBLIOGRAPHY
263
PHILOLOGICAL INDEX
277
GENERAL INDEX
283
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
[Except in the few instances specified below, the illustrations have been drawn or redrawn by the author.]
 
MAPS
 
I. Africa: distribution of the Hamitic stock. After G. Sergi
44
II. Eastern Libya: ethnogeography ca. 1200 B.C. From Egyptian sources
50
III. Eastern Libya: ethnogeography according to Herodotus
53
IV. Eastern Libya: ethnogeography according to Scylax. After C. Müller, Tabulae in Geographicos Minores, Par. I., Pls. iii. and v.
54
V. Eastern Libya: ethnogeography according to Strabo
56
VI. Eastern Libya: ethnogeography according to Diodorus Siculus
57
VII. Eastern Libya: ethnogeography according to Pliny
59
VIII. Eastern Libya: ethnogeography according to Ptolemy, projection unrectified. After C. Müller, Tabulae in Claudii Ptolemaei Geographiam xxxvi., Pls. xxiii. and xxv.
60
IX. The same, with projection rectified
65
X. Eastern Libya: ethnogeography according to late Roman sources
67
XI. Eastern Libya: ethnogeography according to early Arabic sources
70
GENERAL MAP OF EASTERN LIBYA, 1: 4,000,000, compiled at the Offices of the Survey Department, Cairo, Egypt, and at the Royal Geographical Society, London. (In back cover.)
 
PLATES
 
 
FACE PAGE
Three Libyans (Tiles from Medînet Habu). XXth Dynasty. Cairo Museum; photograph by Emile Brugsch Pasha. First published by G. Daressy, Plaquettes ... de Medinet Habou
Frontispiece
I. Libyan Types from the Egyptian Monuments. Fig. 1, Rebu, after W. M. F. Petrie, Racial Photographs, No. 771 [a]. Fig. 2, Rebu, after ibid., No. 770. Fig. 3, Rebu, after ibid., No. 771 [b]. Fig. 4, Rebu (?), after ibid., No. 82 [a]. Fig. 5, Tehenu, after ibid., No. 85. Fig. 6, Rebu (?), after ibid., No. 82 [b]. Fig. 7, Meshwesh, after ibid., No. 154. Fig. 8, Rebu (?), after ibid., No. 162. Fig. 9, Tehenu, after ibid., No. 84
42
II. Libyan Types from the Egyptian Monuments. Fig. 1, Western Type (painting), after ibid., No. 772. Fig. 2, Rebu, Abu Simbel (back of head restored); after photograph. Fig. 3, Western Type (painting), Petrie, op. cit., No. 799. Figs. 4, 5, Meshwesh (?), small bronze in Louvre, details in silver. Fig. 6, Rebu, after LD, iii., Pl. 253. Fig. 7, Meshwesh (?), after Petrie, op. cit., No. 166. Fig. 8, Tehenu, after ibid., No. 71. Fig. 9, Meshwesh (?), after ibid., No. 164 (slightly restored)
46
III. Libyan Princes from the Tomb of Seti I. After LD iii., Pl. 136
120
IV. King Seti I. slaying Libyans. Karnak
126
V. Libyan Tributaries. Benî Hasan. This representation, which I have often cited as Libyan, is generally regarded as portraying Semitic Bedawîn. But I think that the subjects are southern Temehu Libyans because the paintings represent blonds with blue eyes, in the shorter Libyan robe, and wearing ostrich plumes. Fig. 1 after P. E. Newberry, Beni Hasan, vol. i., Pl. xiv. Fig. 2 after ibid., loc. cit, Fig. 3 after ibid., Pl. xvii. (east wall of tomb 14, middle register)
130
VI. Figs. 1 and 2, Small granite head in Cairo Museum. Photograph by Emile Brugsch Pasha. Head said to have come from Thebes, and probably represents a Rebu. Fig. 3, Relief from the Tomb of Harmheb. Leyden Museum; kindness of P. A. A. Boeser
134
VII. Relief from the Mortuary Temple of King Sa-hu-re. Kindness of L. Borchardt
136
VIII. Fayum Implements. After H. W. Seton-Karr, Fayoom Flint Implements, as follows: Pl. iii., 3, 6, 9; Pl. ii., 9, 11, 6, 1, 17, 3, 2, 5; Pl. vii., 5; Pl. iv., 1, 6, 7; Pl. vi., 1, 2; Pl. i., 1, 2, 3; Pl. ii., 18, 20, 25; Pl. viii., 3, 1; Pl. xi., 4; Pl. xiii., 5; Pl. viii., 9; Pl. vii., 4; Pl. ix., 3. The foregoing are arrow-heads, the following are lance- or spear-heads: Pl. xlix., called a knife, but more probably a spear-head, though knives of this type were known in predynastic Egypt; Pl. xvi., 4; Pl. xvii., 3, 5, 7; Pl. xvi., 1; Pl. xlvii.; Pl. lxii., 1; Pl. xxxiv., 2
146
IX. King Seti I. and his Libyan captives. Karnak. (Representation of heads at back of King's chariot particularly excellent)
214
X. Libyan Captives. Medînet Habu
224
XI. Middle Nubian Crania. Bull. Nub., vi. Figs. 1, 1a, Skull from Grave 87: 90. Figs. 2, 2a, from Grave 101: 104. Figs. 3, 3a, from Grave 101: 219
246
FIGURES IN THE TEXT
 
1. (a) Egyptian representation of Egyptian eye. (b) Egyptian representation of Libyan eye. Beyt el-Waly
43
2. (a) Eye of a Kabyle: front. (b) Same: side. (c) Eye of modern Egyptian fellah: front. (d) Same: side. From original sketches
43
3. Tehenu: negroid type. After Petrie, op. cit., No. 72
43
4. Tehenu: negroid type. After ibid., No. 163
43
5, 6, 7. Petroglyphs at Teli-Sagha, Fezzan. After H. Barth, Reisen und Entdeckungen, vol. i.
94, 95
8. Libyan Hunting-Dog. Intef Stela, Cairo Museum
97
9. Petroglyphs showing Pack-Oxen. Western Libya. (a) From Ayn Memnunah. After E.-F. Gautier, Sahara Algèrien, p. 99, Fig. 18, 7. (b) and (c) From Barebbi, after ibid. p. 95, Fig. 15, 2
103
10. Libyan. Temple of Rameses II. at Wady Sebua, Nubia. Photograph through the kindness of C. M. Firth
119
11. Detail after N. de G. Davies, El Amarna, i. Pl. xv.
120
12. Detail, slightly restored, after ibid. iii., Pl. xxxi., and Photog. Pl. xxxix.
120
13. Late relief in Constantinople Museum. After C. Tissot, Gèographie Comparée, vol. i., Fig. 54
120
14. Late relief. After H. Barth, op. cit., vol. i. p. 117
121
15. Late relief. After H. Barth, op. cit., vol. i. p. 117
121
16. (a) Detail from Pl. iii. (b) Sardinian potsherd, after A. Baux, Potterie des Nuraghes, Figs. 1 and 2
121
17. Relief of Libyan from the Mortuary Temple of King Ne-user-re. After L. Borchardt, Ne-user-re, Fig. 31 (for position, ibid., Pl. x.; this sculpture is now in the Berlin Museum, Nos. 17915-16).
123
18. Primitive Egyptian Sheaths. (a) After J. E. Quibell, Hierakonpolis, Part I., Pl. viii., Fig. 3. (b) After ibid., Pl. x., Fig. 2.
123
19. Libyan Sheath and Belt. After L. Borchardt, Ne-user-re, Fig. 29 (general position of this fragment shown in ibid., Pl. xi.)
123
20. Libyan Sheath, Belt, and Cross-bands. After LD iii., Pl. 129 (XIXth Dynasty)
124
21. Libyan Sheath. Detail from original sketch, Temple of Rameses II. at Abydus
124
22. Libyan Sheath and Belt. After LD iii., Pl. 140
124
23. Libyan Sheath and Belt. After Photograph 296 K. und K. Arch. Institut, Cairo: Abu Simbel
124
24. Captive Meshwesh. After LD iii., Pl. 209 (XXth Dynasty; Medînet Habu)
125
25. Detail of Belt and Loop. After LD iii., Pl. 140
125
26. Detail of Sheath and Statue. After G. Daressy, Statues de Divinités in Cairo Cat., vol. ii., Pl. vi. (Cairo Museum, No. 38,068). Cf. vol. i. (text), p. 25. From Karnak. This unknown god-"he who wears the double plume"-was probably of Libyan origin
125
27. Detail of Belts in Figs. 17 and 19. (Conjectural restoration)
126
28. Detail of Loops in Figs. 17 and 19. (Conjectural restoration)
126
29. (a) Shell Sector-bead: "C Group." After G. A. Reisner, Nub. Arch. Survey, vol. i. (Plates), Pl. lxx.: b. 13. (b) Conjectural stringing
126
30. Sandal, Detail from Frontispiece
127
31. Libyan. Wooden panel from Tomb of Thothmes IV. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
127
32. (a) Hat of Arcesilaus. After representation on the Silphium-weighing vase. Detail from reproduction in E. Babelon, Cabinet des Antiques à la Biblioth. Nat., Pl. xii. (b) Modern Imushagh Hat. Detail from original sketch at Tripoli
128
33. Relief at Ghadames. After H. Duveyrier, Les Touareg du Nord, Pl. x., Fig. 1
128
34. Slunt Sculptures. Reproduced from G. Haimann, Girenaica, Fig. 3
129
35. Libyan Plumes. Tomb of Rameses II, at Thebes
130
36. Sketch showing Negro method of wearing plumes. Cf. LD iii., Pl. 117
130
37. Ear-rings. (a) Detail from Fig. 45 = Petrie, Diospolis Parva, Pl. xxv. (Grave Y 354). (b) Cf. this essay, Pl. I., 8; Pl. II., 5, 9; and Figs. 4, 17. (c) Cf. ibid., Pl. II., 2. (d) Cf. ibid., Pl. VI., 3 (the two Libyans). (e) Cf. ibid., Pl. I., 7. (f) Detail from ibid., Fig. 24. (g) After LD iii., Pl. 209. (h) Cf. ibid., Pl. VI., 1. (i) After E.-F. Gautier, Sahara Algèrien, Pl. xv., Photog. 28
131
38. Ear-ring and Stud. Beyt el-Waly. Kindness of G. Roeder
131
39. Plate-beads, showing stringing. After G. A. Reisner, Nub. Arch. Survey, vol. i. (Plates), Pl. lxx. b.
131
40. Detail of Cross-bands from Fig. 17 (conjectural)
132
41. Detail of Cross-bands from Beyt el-Waly, showing colour-scheme. Kindness of G. Roeder
132
42. Detail after L. Borchardt, Ne-user-re, Pl. viii. B (Berlin Museum, No. 17,918)
133
43. Kneeling Libyan, Beyt el-Waly. Kindness of G. Roeder
134
44. Hieroglyph. (Example in the "Osireion" shows one pendent, and in the place of the other a stave for support)
135
45. Cranium. After W. M. F. Petrie, Diospolis Parva, Pl. xxv. (Grave Y 354)
135
46. Head of Fulah of Ka or, showing side-lock (photograph by Collignon). After J. Deniker, Races of Man, p. 442, Fig. 139
136
47. Lock of Youth (Egyptian). Statue Rameses II., Karnak, after W. M. F. Petrie, History, iii., p. 40
137
48. Libyan Tattooing. After N. de G. Davies, El-Amarna, vi., Pl. iv. Right shoulder of original damaged
137
49. Four Libyans. Thebes. After J. G. Wilkinson, Manners and Customs of the Ancient Egyptians, vol. i. p. 246, cut No. 76 (group 4).
138
50. Tattooing. Details of "Neith-symbols." (a) From Frontispiece; (b) from Pl. III. (right-hand figure); (c) from Fig. 49; (d) from Frontispiece; (e) from Pl. III. (third figure from left); (f) from Pl. III. (second figure from left)
139
51. Three Hieroglyphs
140
52. Elements of Libyan Tattooing from Frontispiece; Pl. III.; Figs. 48, 49
140
53. Libyan Vessels. After W. M. Müller, Egypt. Researches, vol. ii. p. 124, Fig. 46
142
54. Libyan Sticks. (a, b) After N. de G. Davies, El-Amarna, ii., Pl. lx. (c) Detail from Fig. 64
145
55. Libyan Bows. (a, b) Details from Pl. IV. (c) After LD iii., Pl. 253
145
56. Arrow-head from near Gerbah (Sîwah), 2: 3 nat. size. (Sent to me by Major L. V. Royle, 1912)
145
57. Libyco-Berber Glyphs at Barrebi. After E.-F. Gautier, Sahara algérien, p. 97, Fig. 17; scale 1: 20
146
58. Libyco-Berber Relief. (From near Abisar in Kabylia; now in Algiers Museum, No. 104.) After V. Reboud, Recueil d'Inscriptions, Pl. xvi., Inscr. 135
146
59. Poignards. (a, b) After L. Borchardt, Ne-user-re, Fig. 64 (fragments in Berlin Museum, Nos. 16, 110, 16, 115). Possibly Puntite? Cf. ibid. (text), p. 87. (c, d) After LD iii., Pl. 61 (Karnak, XVIIIth Dynasty). (e) After LD iii., Pl. 253 (repeated eight times)
147
60. Rock Glyph. After G.-B.-M. Flamand, Inscriptions de la Gara des Chorfa, Fig. 7 (p. 11)
148
61. Shield from Rock-glyph in Tibesti. After G. Nachtigal ap. G.-B.-M. Flamand, op. cit., Fig. 5 (p. 11)
148
62. Musical Instruments. Details from a N.E. representation. After J. G. Wilkinson, Manners and Customs of the Ancient Egyptians, vol. i. p. 456, cut 224
155
63. Temehu War-dance. After I. Rosellini ap. G. Maspero, Struggle of the Nations, p. 220
155
64. Architectural Moulding from Slunt. After photograph ap. A. Ghisleri, Tripolitania e Cirenaica, p. 51
158
65. Slunt Sculptures: fragments. Reproduced from G. Haimann, Cirenaica. (a) Fig. 4 and (b) Fig. 5. Cf. Fig. 34
158
66. Hawah Segal. Reproduced from G. Haimann, op. cit., Fig. 2
162
67, 67a. Reconstruction of Fortress of the Ghemines type. Scale 1: 600. Sources as in text, Ch. VII.
164
68, 68a, 68b. Reconstruction of Fort at Ghemines. Scale 1: 600. Sources as in text
164
69, 69a, 69b. Reconstruction of Fort at Henayah. Scale 1: 600. Sources as in text
165
70, 70a. Small Fort near Wady Malab, Gulf of Bombah. Scale 1: 600. Plan and section by O. Bates, 1909
166
71. Photograph, Wady Malah Fort, showing passage between the two enclosure.
167
72. The same, showing masonry near ramp
167
73. Native Hut. After F. Gauckler in Compte Rendu de l'Acad. des Inscrip., 1898, p. 828. (From a Roman mosaic)
169
74. Native Hut. After S. Gsell, Musèe de Philipville, p. 32 and Pl. ii. (From a Roman sarcophagus)
170
75, 75a. Large Cistern in Mariut. Scale 1: 500. O. Bates, 1910
170
76, 76a. Cistern. Seal Is., Gulf of Bombah. Scale 1: 200. O. Bates, 1909
170
77, 77a. Grain Store. Near Marsa Suzah. Scale 1: 200. O. Bates, 1909
171
78 a, b, c, d. Plastic representation of Amon; from Karnak. Reproduced from G. Daressy, Une Nouvelle Forme d'Amon, in Annales, vol. ix. (1908), Pl. i.
192
79. Relief (Roman period) at Karnak. After ibid., Pl. i.
193
80. Amon from Bronze Mirror from Mît Rahînah. After G. Daressy, Une Trouvaille de Bronzes, etc., in Annales, vol. iii. (1902), Pl. ii. Fig. 1
194
81 a, b, c. Teknw. (a) After J. J. Tylor, Tomb of Paheri, Pl. viii., Register 7. (b) After idem., Tomb of Rekmara, Pl. xxi., bottom register. (c) After idem., Tomb of Renni, Pl. xiii., Register 2
194
82. Rock-glyph of Ram, from Col de Zenaga. After E.-F. Gautier, op. cit., Fig. 14 (p. 93)
196
83. Rock-glyph of Ram (?). Same source. After ibid., Fig. 11 (p. 89)
196
84. Rock-glyph of Ram, from Bu `Alem. After S. Gsell, Monuments antiques de l'Algérie, vol. i. p. 46, Fig. 13
196
85. Punic Relief. After E. de Sainte-Marie, Mission, etc., p. 67
199
86. Terra Cotta Figurine of Ba`al Hammon. Barre Collection. After Perrot and Chipiez, Histoire de l'Art, etc., vol. iii., Fig. 25. (Cf. ibid. vol. iii., Fig. 140, for another example.)
199
87. Terra Cotta Figurine of the Dives Ovium. After E. de Sainte-Marie, op. cit., p. 60
199
88. Rameses II. slaying a Libyan Chief. Beyt el-Waly. After a photograph, through the kindness of G. Roeder
214
89. Revamped Head (changed from Syrian to Libyan). Beyt el-Waly. After a tracing of the original made by G. Roeder
215
90 a, b. (a) Typical Early "C Group" Grave and Superstructure (filling cleared) as found at Dakkah (Pselchis). (b) Section through same, on N.W.-S.E. axis
246
91. Section through regem near `Ayn Sefrah. After E.-F. Gautier, op. cit., Fig. 1, 3 (p. 69)
247
92. Plan of Grave-circle, Rokniah type. After Maclver and Wilkin, Libyan Notes, Pl. xv. i
247
93 a, b, c. Seal Island regem. O. Bates, 1909
248
94. Seal Island regem. O. Bates, 1909
248
95 a, b. Scenes from Smoothed Coarse Red Ware Jars from "C Group" Graves at Dakkah. Kindness C. M. Firth
249
96. Jar-sealing from Amadah, Nubia. After MacIver and Wooley, Areika, Pl. ix. b (two examples were found). Cf. the similar example in ibid., Buhen, Plates; Pl. 42, three lowest figures
249
97. "C Group" Figurine from Dakkah. Kindness C. M. Firth
250
98. Elements of "C Group" Tattooing, as seen on the Figurines from Nubian Arch. Survey cemetery, 101
250
99 a, b. Two Inscriptions from Gheytah (in the Egyptian Delta). After W. M. F. Petrie and F. G. Duncan, Hyksas and Israelite Cities (double volume), Pl. lxviii.
253
100. Heads of Heracles and Antaeus from a crater by Euphronius. After E. Poittier, Vases antiques du Louvre, ii. (Salles E-G), Pl. 100
260